Yolanthe Nguyen November 15, 2019 Fruit
Animals produce color in both direct and indirect ways. Direct production occurs through the presence of visible colored cells known as pigment which are particles of colored material such as freckles. Indirect production occurs by virtue of cells known as chromatophores which are pigment-containing cells such as hair follicles. The distribution of the pigment particles in the chromatophores can change under hormonal or neuronal control. For fishes it has been demonstrated that chromatophores may respond directly to environmental stimuli like visible light, UV-radiation, temperature, pH, chemicals, etc. Color change helps individuals in becoming more or less visible and is important in agonistic displays and in camouflage. Some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colors. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colors. Animals often use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colors and effects they need.
While many animals are unable to synthesize carotene pigments to create red and yellow surfaces, the green and blue colors of bird feathers and insect carapaces are usually not produced by pigments at all, but by structural coloration. Structural coloration means the production of color by microscopically-structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments: for example, peacock tail feathers are pigmented brown, but their structure makes them appear blue, turquoise and green. Structural coloration can produce the most brilliant colors, often iridescent. For example, the blue green gloss on the plumage of birds such as ducks, and the purple blue green red colors of many beetles and butterflies are created by structural coloration. Animals use several methods to produce structural color, as described in the table.
Pigments are colored chemicals (such as melanin) in animal tissues. For example, the Arctic fox has a white coat in winter (containing little pigment), and a brown coat in summer (containing more pigment), an example of seasonal camouflage (a polyphenism). Many animals, including mammals, birds, and amphibians, are unable to synthesize most of the pigments that color their fur or feathers, other than the brown or black melanins that give many mammals their earth tones. For example, the bright yellow of an American goldfinch, the startling orange of a juvenile red-spotted newt, the deep red of a cardinal and the pink of a flamingo are all produced by carotenoid pigments synthesized by plants. In the case of the flamingo, the bird eats pink shrimps, which are themselves unable to synthesize carotenoids. The shrimps derive their body color from microscopic red algae, which like most plants are able to create their own pigments, including both carotenoids and (green) chlorophyll. Animals that eat green plants do not become green, however, as chlorophyll does not survive digestion.
When cephalopod molluscs like squid and cuttlefish find themselves against a light background, they contract many of their chromatography, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, dense, but widely spaced dots, appearing light. When they enter a darker environment, they allow their chromatography to expand, creating a pattern of larger dark spots, and making their bodies appear dark. Amphibians such as frogs have three kinds of star-shaped chromatophore cells in separate layers of their skin. The top layer contains ’phosphorescent’ with orange, red, or yellow pigments; the middle layer contains ’sophomores’ with a silvery light-reflecting pigment; while the bottom layer contains ’melanophores’ with dark melanin.
Winston Churchill once said “We shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us”. (Grangaard, 1993) Environmental factors play an essential role in the nutrition, growth, development and education of children. Each and every characteristic of their physical environment contributes to their education and development. Although residential location, design, order, plan, colors as well as the areas of play may contribute to a child’s learning, these same factors may also hinder the revelation of their potential.
Examples of culinary ”vegetables” and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, biscuits (e.g., cucumber, pumpkin, and squash), eggplant, legumes (beans, peanuts, and peas), sweet pepper, and tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits, botanically speaking. In contrast, rhubarb is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole (leaf stalk) of the rhubarb plant is edible, and edible gymnosperm seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., ginkgo nuts and pine nuts.
Tag Cloudelephant coloring book alpaca coloring page winter animal coloring pages whale coloring cute animals to color giraffe pictures to color racoon coloring page giraffe coloring sheet pig coloring sheet printable horse pictures killer whale coloring page stingray coloring page rattlesnake coloring page fox pictures to color koi fish coloring page bear coloring sheet kitten coloring sheet printable dog pictures chibi girl coloring pages fox coloring sheet monkey coloring sheet kitten coloring farm coloring sheets panda coloring sheets penguin coloring sheet baby chick coloring page frog pictures to color realistic dog coloring pages dolphin coloring sheet free printable animal coloring pages spider coloring sheet bearded dragon coloring page hard animal coloring pages hammerhead shark coloring page free dog coloring pages frog coloring sheet rat coloring page snake coloring farm animals coloring wildlife coloring pages sea life coloring pages coyote coloring page