Yolanthe Nguyen November 15, 2019 Fruit
Abbott Handerson Thayer’s 1909 book Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, completed by his son Gerald H. Thayer, argued correctly for the widespread use of crypts among animals, and in particular described and explained countershading for the first time. However, the Thayers spoilt their case by arguing that camouflage was the sole purpose of animal coloration, which led them to claim that even the brilliant pink plumage of the flamingo or the roseate spoonbill was cryptic—against the momentarily pink sky at dawn or dusk. As a result, the book was mocked by critics including Theodore Roosevelt as having ”pushed [the ”doctrine” of concealing coloration] to such a fantastic extreme and to include such wild absurdities as to call for the application of common sense thereto.
When we see leaf-eating insects green, and bark-feeders mottled-grey; the alpine ptarmigan white in winter, the red-grouse the colour of heather, and the black-grouse that of peaty earth, we must believe that these tints are of service to these birds and insects in preserving them from danger. Grouse, if not destroyed at some period of their lives, would increase in countless numbers; they are known to suffer largely from birds of prey; and hawks are guided by eyesight to their prey, so much so, that on parts of the Continent persons are warned not to keep white pigeons, as being the most liable to destruction. Hence I can see no reason to doubt that natural selection might be most effective in giving the proper colour to each kind of grouse, and in keeping that colour, when once acquired, true and constant.
It is also necessary to be especially sensitive in designing children’s rooms. Naturally each and every room in our homes is important, however, a child’s room must be attractive and entertaining, with elements that will contribute to his education and the development of his brain. In choosing the wall color for their rooms, we must endeavor to protect children’s sight, provide them with a proper study environment, protect their physical and mental health and create an environment conducive to a comfortable sleep.
My earliest memories growing up, were sitting at the breakfast table with my dad, before the sun came out, outlining and coloring the fonts of the newspaper. He would rise at 4am for work and we would sit for an hour before he left…and color together. As an adult.., I carried on the tradition by buying children’s coloring books at the dollar store..and practicing calligraphy as a hobby. When adult coloring books came out in the recent years.., I was ecstatic! I still color early mornings at breakfast rime..and also late nights to wind down. It has helped with my memory recall..as well as with the physical negative effects of thyroid disease, since an early age. Also as an introvert, it helps me to recuperate after a long day of normal kids and stress.
When cephalopod molluscs like squid and cuttlefish find themselves against a light background, they contract many of their chromatography, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, dense, but widely spaced dots, appearing light. When they enter a darker environment, they allow their chromatography to expand, creating a pattern of larger dark spots, and making their bodies appear dark. Amphibians such as frogs have three kinds of star-shaped chromatophore cells in separate layers of their skin. The top layer contains ’phosphorescent’ with orange, red, or yellow pigments; the middle layer contains ’sophomores’ with a silvery light-reflecting pigment; while the bottom layer contains ’melanophores’ with dark melanin.
Bio luminescence is the production of light, such as by the photosensor of marine animals, and the tails of glow-worms and fireflies. Bio luminescence, like other forms of metabolism, releases energy derived from the chemical energy of food. A pigment, luciferin is catalysed by the enzyme luciferase to react with oxygen, releasing light. Comb jellies such as Euphemisms are bio luminescent, creating blue and green light, especially when stressed; when disturbed, they secrete an ink which luminescence in the same colors. Since comb jellies are not very sensitive to light, their bio luminescence is unlikely to be used to signal to other members of the same species (e.g. to attract mates or repel rivals); more likely, the light helps to distract predators or parasites. Some species of squid have light-producing organs (photophores) scattered all over their undersides that create a sparkling glow. This provides counter-illumination camouflage, preventing the animal from appearing as a dark shape when seen from below. Some anglerfish of the deep sea, where it is too dark to hunt by sight, contain symbiotic bacteria in the ’bait’ on their ’fishing rods’. These emit light to attract prey.
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