Yolanthe Nguyen November 15, 2019 Fruit
Animals produce color in both direct and indirect ways. Direct production occurs through the presence of visible colored cells known as pigment which are particles of colored material such as freckles. Indirect production occurs by virtue of cells known as chromatophores which are pigment-containing cells such as hair follicles. The distribution of the pigment particles in the chromatophores can change under hormonal or neuronal control. For fishes it has been demonstrated that chromatophores may respond directly to environmental stimuli like visible light, UV-radiation, temperature, pH, chemicals, etc. Color change helps individuals in becoming more or less visible and is important in agonistic displays and in camouflage. Some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colors. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colors. Animals often use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colors and effects they need.
Bio luminescence is the production of light, such as by the photosensor of marine animals, and the tails of glow-worms and fireflies. Bio luminescence, like other forms of metabolism, releases energy derived from the chemical energy of food. A pigment, luciferin is catalysed by the enzyme luciferase to react with oxygen, releasing light. Comb jellies such as Euphemisms are bio luminescent, creating blue and green light, especially when stressed; when disturbed, they secrete an ink which luminescence in the same colors. Since comb jellies are not very sensitive to light, their bio luminescence is unlikely to be used to signal to other members of the same species (e.g. to attract mates or repel rivals); more likely, the light helps to distract predators or parasites. Some species of squid have light-producing organs (photophores) scattered all over their undersides that create a sparkling glow. This provides counter-illumination camouflage, preventing the animal from appearing as a dark shape when seen from below. Some anglerfish of the deep sea, where it is too dark to hunt by sight, contain symbiotic bacteria in the ’bait’ on their ’fishing rods’. These emit light to attract prey.
Orange is softer and simpler in comparison to red. It represents happiness, sociability, an extrovert nature as well as joy with the excitement of red and the energy of yellow. It is ideal in overcoming tiredness. It radiates warmth, increases appetite and helps you wake up early in the mornings. Its energy can be lower when saturation is low. It is ideal for use in the rooms of introverted children with problems in socializing. Orange physically represents self confidence, independence and to a certain extent competition. If there is a separate recreation room in your house and your child spends time there with his/her friends you can easily use shades of orange in this room.
Blue, in all respects is the total opposite of red. While blue is transparent and wet in appearance red is opaque and dry. Psychologically the cold and comforting nature of blue is the polar opposite of the warmth and excitement of red. In contrast to red, blue reduces body temperature, blood pressure and pulse rate. Blue evokes feelings of contentment, spaciousness and comfort due to being the color of the sky and ocean as well. As the shade of blue approaches black with the addition of black it may become depressive and melancholic. Blue is a color that is widely recommended for use in children’s rooms. Especially in nurseries, the use of blue helps the baby’s easy and peaceful transition into sleep. It can also be comfortably used with active and vibrant children due to its calming effect. As is the case with all other colors, you can accessorize your room in red and yellow when you choose to paint your walls in blue.
Their interest was in examining coloring therapy which “combines elements of art therapy and meditation” (pp. 81). In the study, 84 undergraduate students received “a brief anxiety-induction,” and were randomly assigned to color either a mandala, plaid form, or blank piece of paper (pp. 81). Curry and Kasser reported, “that anxiety levels declined approximately the same for the mandala- and plaid-coloring groups and that both of these groups experienced more reduction in anxiety than did the unstructured-coloring group”
When cephalopod molluscs like squid and cuttlefish find themselves against a light background, they contract many of their chromatography, concentrating the pigment into a smaller area, resulting in a pattern of tiny, dense, but widely spaced dots, appearing light. When they enter a darker environment, they allow their chromatography to expand, creating a pattern of larger dark spots, and making their bodies appear dark. Amphibians such as frogs have three kinds of star-shaped chromatophore cells in separate layers of their skin. The top layer contains ’phosphorescent’ with orange, red, or yellow pigments; the middle layer contains ’sophomores’ with a silvery light-reflecting pigment; while the bottom layer contains ’melanophores’ with dark melanin.
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