Rosamonde Morvan November 20, 2019 Fruit
Selflessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially grapefruit, mandarin oranges, navel oranges), satsumas, table grapes, and watermelons are valued for their selflessness. In some species, selflessness is the result of parthenogenesis, where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenogenesis fruit set may or may not require pollination, but most seedless citrus fruits require a stimulus from pollination to produce fruit.
Aggregate fruits form from single flowers that have multiple carpels which are not joined together, i.e. each pistil contains one carpel. Each pistil forms a fruitlet, and collectively the fruitlets are called an etaerio. Four types of aggregate fruits include etaerios of achenes, follicles, drupelets, and berries. Ranunculaceae species, including Clematis and Ranunculus have an etaerio of achenes, Calotropis has an etaerio of follicles, and Rubus species like raspberry, have an etaerio of drupelets. Annona have an etaerio of berries.
Pigments are colored chemicals (such as melanin) in animal tissues. For example, the Arctic fox has a white coat in winter (containing little pigment), and a brown coat in summer (containing more pigment), an example of seasonal camouflage (a polyphenism). Many animals, including mammals, birds, and amphibians, are unable to synthesize most of the pigments that color their fur or feathers, other than the brown or black melanins that give many mammals their earth tones. For example, the bright yellow of an American goldfinch, the startling orange of a juvenile red-spotted newt, the deep red of a cardinal and the pink of a flamingo are all produced by carotenoid pigments synthesized by plants. In the case of the flamingo, the bird eats pink shrimps, which are themselves unable to synthesize carotenoids. The shrimps derive their body color from microscopic red algae, which like most plants are able to create their own pigments, including both carotenoids and (green) chlorophyll. Animals that eat green plants do not become green, however, as chlorophyll does not survive digestion.
Purple stimulates the part of the brain related to creativity. At the same time it has a calming effect. Violet is a lighter shade of purple and is included in the spectrum. Purple on the other hand is a complex color and in terms of color type there are big differences between them. Girls like pink and purple very much. Purple is a color appropriate for children. Purple can be easily used in the rooms of preschool children that are usually involved in creative activities as well as teenage girls’ rooms for purposes of contributing to their academic skills. Due to the fact that it also contributes to physical and spiritual serenity, purple and its different shades can be used in the rooms of hyperactive and highly animated children.
their upper sides seem to me to consist of a multitude of thin plated bodies, which are exceeding thin, and lie very close together, and thereby, like mother of Pearl shells, do not only reflect a very brisk light, but tinge that light in a most curious manner; and by means of various positions, in respect of the light, they reflect back now one colour, and then another, and those most vividly. Now, that these colours are only fantastical ones, that is, such as arise immediately from the refractions of the light, I found by this, that water wetting these colour, which seemed to proceed from the alteration of the reflection and refraction.
Batesian mimicry was first described by pioneering naturalist Henry W. Bates. When an edible prey animal comes to resemble, even slightly, a distasteful animal, natural selection favors those individuals that even very slightly better resemble the distasteful species. This is because even a small degree of protection reduces prediction and increases the chance that an individual mimic will survive and reproduce. For example, many species of hover fly are colored black and yellow like bees, and are in consequence avoided by birds (and people).
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