Chantell Tanguy November 27, 2019 Fruit
Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that may change their size, but more often retain their original size but allow the pigment within them to become redistributed, thus varying the color and pattern of the animal. Chromatophores may respond to hormonal and or neurobal control mechanisms, but direst responses to stimulation by visible light, UV-radiation, temperature, pH-changes, chemicals, etc. have also been documented. The voluntary control of chromatophores is known as metachrosis. For example, cuttlefish and chameleons can rapidly change their appearance, both for camouflage and for signalling, as Aristotle first noted over 2000 years ago
Abbott Handerson Thayer’s 1909 book Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, completed by his son Gerald H. Thayer, argued correctly for the widespread use of crypts among animals, and in particular described and explained countershading for the first time. However, the Thayers spoilt their case by arguing that camouflage was the sole purpose of animal coloration, which led them to claim that even the brilliant pink plumage of the flamingo or the roseate spoonbill was cryptic—against the momentarily pink sky at dawn or dusk. As a result, the book was mocked by critics including Theodore Roosevelt as having ”pushed [the ”doctrine” of concealing coloration] to such a fantastic extreme and to include such wild absurdities as to call for the application of common sense thereto.
Pink, which is a mixture of red and white, physically affects us in a positive way. It is relaxing and warm. It is the only lighter shade of red with it’s own name. Other lighter colors are just light green or light blue. Pink is also psychologically a strong color. It represents the continuity of living beings as well as femininity. It has a deeply soothing effect. Too much pink could be tiring and oppressive. It is not suitable to use too much pink in the rooms of shy and introverted children as this is not an energetic color. It can lead to further withdrawal of this type of children. Pink with lesser undertones of red can be easily used in the rooms of active and energetic children. It evokes feelings of warmth and peace.
Colors affect the bodily functions, mind and emotions with the energy produced by light. Studies conducted clearly demonstrate the benefits of colors where the development of the brain, creativity, productivity and learning are concerned. The effects of color on human beings can be varied; causing excitement, lending calm, giving inspiration, raising anxiety or tension or giving peace are some of these effects. These effects can be observed more distinctly in children. Children can be more sensitive to colors.
their upper sides seem to me to consist of a multitude of thin plated bodies, which are exceeding thin, and lie very close together, and thereby, like mother of Pearl shells, do not only reflect a very brisk light, but tinge that light in a most curious manner; and by means of various positions, in respect of the light, they reflect back now one colour, and then another, and those most vividly. Now, that these colours are only fantastical ones, that is, such as arise immediately from the refractions of the light, I found by this, that water wetting these colour, which seemed to proceed from the alteration of the reflection and refraction.
While many animals are unable to synthesize carotene pigments to create red and yellow surfaces, the green and blue colors of bird feathers and insect carapaces are usually not produced by pigments at all, but by structural coloration. Structural coloration means the production of color by microscopically-structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments: for example, peacock tail feathers are pigmented brown, but their structure makes them appear blue, turquoise and green. Structural coloration can produce the most brilliant colors, often iridescent. For example, the blue green gloss on the plumage of birds such as ducks, and the purple blue green red colors of many beetles and butterflies are created by structural coloration. Animals use several methods to produce structural color, as described in the table.
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