Geneve Legoff November 25, 2019 Fruit
Examples of culinary ”vegetables” and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, biscuits (e.g., cucumber, pumpkin, and squash), eggplant, legumes (beans, peanuts, and peas), sweet pepper, and tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits, botanically speaking. In contrast, rhubarb is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole (leaf stalk) of the rhubarb plant is edible, and edible gymnosperm seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., ginkgo nuts and pine nuts.
Batesian mimicry was first described by pioneering naturalist Henry W. Bates. When an edible prey animal comes to resemble, even slightly, a distasteful animal, natural selection favors those individuals that even very slightly better resemble the distasteful species. This is because even a small degree of protection reduces prediction and increases the chance that an individual mimic will survive and reproduce. For example, many species of hover fly are colored black and yellow like bees, and are in consequence avoided by birds (and people).
Darwin explained such male-female differences in his theory of sexual selection in his book The Descent of Man. Once the females begin to select males according to any particular characteristic, such as a long tail or a colored crest, that characteristic is emphasized more and more in the males. Eventually all the males will have the characteristics that the females are sexually selecting for, as only those males can reproduce. This mechanism is powerful enough to create features that are strongly disadvantageous to the males in other ways. For example, some male birds of paradise have wing or tail streamers that are so long that they impede flight, while their brilliant colors may make the males more vulnerable to predators. In the extreme, sexual selection may drive species to extinction, as has been argued for the enormous horns of the male Irish elk, which may have made it difficult for mature males to move and feed.
Pink, which is a mixture of red and white, physically affects us in a positive way. It is relaxing and warm. It is the only lighter shade of red with it’s own name. Other lighter colors are just light green or light blue. Pink is also psychologically a strong color. It represents the continuity of living beings as well as femininity. It has a deeply soothing effect. Too much pink could be tiring and oppressive. It is not suitable to use too much pink in the rooms of shy and introverted children as this is not an energetic color. It can lead to further withdrawal of this type of children. Pink with lesser undertones of red can be easily used in the rooms of active and energetic children. It evokes feelings of warmth and peace.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multi seeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules. The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer, also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the petals, sepals, and stamens), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off. When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.
Warning coloration is effectively the ”opposite” of camouflage, and a special case of advertising. Its function is to make the animal, for example a wasp or a coral snake, highly conspicuous to potential predators, so that it is noticed, remembered, and then avoided. As Peter Forbes observes, ”Human warning signs employ the same colours – red, yellow, black, and white – that nature uses to advertise dangerous creatures.” Warning colors work by being associated by potential predators with something that makes the warning colored animal unpleasant or dangerous.
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