Adriane Dumont November 13, 2019 Animal
Hugh Bamford Cott’s 500-page book Adaptive Coloration in Animals, published in wartime 1940, systematically described the principles of camouflage and mimicry. The book contains hundreds of examples, over a hundred photographs and Cott’s own accurate and artistic drawings, and 27 pages of references. Cott focussed especially on ”maximum disruptive contrast”, the kind of patterning used in military camouflage such as disruptive pattern material. Indeed, Cott describes such applications
luciferin is catalysed by the enzyme luciferase to react with oxygen, releasing light. Comb jellies such as Euplokamis are bioluminescent, creating blue and green light, especially when stressed; when disturbed, they secrete an ink which luminesces in the same
When color is transmitted from the eye to the brain, the brain releases a hormone affecting the emotions, mind clarity and energy levels. The negative and positive psychological effects of colors can be observed in human beings based on the combinations they are used in. While babies feel unsettled in a room of mainly yellow, they can feel peaceful and calm in a room painted in a combination of blue, green and yellow.
For example, the Arctic fox has a white coat in winter (containing little pigment), and a brown coat in summer (containing more pigment), an example of seasonal camouflage.
Advertising coloration can signal the services an animal offers to other animals. These may be of the same species, as in sexual selection, or of different species, as in cleaning symbiosis. Signals, which often combine color and movement, may be understood by many different species; for example, the cleaning stations of the banded coral shrimp Stenopus hispidus are visited by different species of fish, and even by reptiles such as hawksbill sea turtles.
Henry Walter Bates’s 1863 book The Naturalist on the River Amazons describes his extensive studies of the insects in the Amazon basin, and especially the butterflies. He discovered that apparently similar butterflies often belonged to different families, with a harmless species mimicking a poisonous or bitter-tasting species to reduce its chance of being attacked by a predator, in the process now called after him, Bayesian mimicry.
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