Fantina Marchal October 20, 2019 Fruit
Bio luminescence is the production of light, such as by the photosensor of marine animals, and the tails of glow-worms and fireflies. Bio luminescence, like other forms of metabolism, releases energy derived from the chemical energy of food. A pigment, luciferin is catalysed by the enzyme luciferase to react with oxygen, releasing light. Comb jellies such as Euphemisms are bio luminescent, creating blue and green light, especially when stressed; when disturbed, they secrete an ink which luminescence in the same colors. Since comb jellies are not very sensitive to light, their bio luminescence is unlikely to be used to signal to other members of the same species (e.g. to attract mates or repel rivals); more likely, the light helps to distract predators or parasites. Some species of squid have light-producing organs (photophores) scattered all over their undersides that create a sparkling glow. This provides counter-illumination camouflage, preventing the animal from appearing as a dark shape when seen from below. Some anglerfish of the deep sea, where it is too dark to hunt by sight, contain symbiotic bacteria in the ’bait’ on their ’fishing rods’. These emit light to attract prey.
While many animals are unable to synthesize carotene pigments to create red and yellow surfaces, the green and blue colors of bird feathers and insect carapaces are usually not produced by pigments at all, but by structural coloration. Structural coloration means the production of color by microscopically-structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments: for example, peacock tail feathers are pigmented brown, but their structure makes them appear blue, turquoise and green. Structural coloration can produce the most brilliant colors, often iridescent. For example, the blue green gloss on the plumage of birds such as ducks, and the purple blue green red colors of many beetles and butterflies are created by structural coloration. Animals use several methods to produce structural color, as described in the table.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multi seeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules. The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer, also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the petals, sepals, and stamens), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off. When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.
Depending on the situation they are used in, colors can give rise to positive or negative effects. Each color used by itself in a room with the expectation of creating a positive effect, carries the possibility of causing a negative reaction instead. Being subject to excessive stimuli can cause changes in breathing pattern, pulse, blood pressure and muscle tension. On the other hand, too little stimuli can lead to anxiousness, sleeplessness, excessive emotional reaction, loss of concentration and nervousness.
Aggregate fruits form from single flowers that have multiple carpels which are not joined together, i.e. each pistil contains one carpel. Each pistil forms a fruitlet, and collectively the fruitlets are called an etaerio. Four types of aggregate fruits include etaerios of achenes, follicles, drupelets, and berries. Ranunculaceae species, including Clematis and Ranunculus have an etaerio of achenes, Calotropis has an etaerio of follicles, and Rubus species like raspberry, have an etaerio of drupelets. Annona have an etaerio of berries.
Müllerian mimicry was first described by pioneering naturalist Fritz Muller. When a distasteful animal comes to resemble a more common distasteful animal, natural selection favors individuals that even very slightly better resemble the target. For example, many species of stinging wasp and bee are similarly colored black and yellow. Muller’s explanation of the mechanism for this was one of the first uses of mathematics in biology. He argued that a predator, such as a young bird, must attack at least one insect, say a wasp, to learn that the black and yellow colors mean a stinging insect. If bees were differently colored, the young bird would have to attack one of them also. But when bees and wasps resemble each other, the young bird need only attack one from the whole group to learn to avoid all of them. So, fewer bees are attacked if they mimic wasps; the same applies to wasps that mimic bees. The result is mutual resemblance for mutual protection.
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