Lauren Pereira November 22, 2019 Fruit
Animals produce color in both direct and indirect ways. Direct production occurs through the presence of visible colored cells known as pigment which are particles of colored material such as freckles. Indirect production occurs by virtue of cells known as chromatophores which are pigment-containing cells such as hair follicles. The distribution of the pigment particles in the chromatophores can change under hormonal or neuronal control. For fishes it has been demonstrated that chromatophores may respond directly to environmental stimuli like visible light, UV-radiation, temperature, pH, chemicals, etc. Color change helps individuals in becoming more or less visible and is important in agonistic displays and in camouflage. Some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colors. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colors. Animals often use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colors and effects they need.
Müllerian mimicry was first described by pioneering naturalist Fritz Muller. When a distasteful animal comes to resemble a more common distasteful animal, natural selection favors individuals that even very slightly better resemble the target. For example, many species of stinging wasp and bee are similarly colored black and yellow. Muller’s explanation of the mechanism for this was one of the first uses of mathematics in biology. He argued that a predator, such as a young bird, must attack at least one insect, say a wasp, to learn that the black and yellow colors mean a stinging insect. If bees were differently colored, the young bird would have to attack one of them also. But when bees and wasps resemble each other, the young bird need only attack one from the whole group to learn to avoid all of them. So, fewer bees are attacked if they mimic wasps; the same applies to wasps that mimic bees. The result is mutual resemblance for mutual protection.
The main mechanisms to create the resemblances described by Poulton – whether in nature or in military applications – are crypts, blending into the background so as to become hard to see (this covers both special and general resemblance); disruptive patterning, using color and pattern to break up the animal’s outline, which relates mainly to general resemblance; mime sis, resembling other objects of no special interest to the observer, which relates to special resemblance; counter shading, using graded color to create the illusion of flatness, which relates mainly to general resemblance; and counter illumination, producing light to match the background, notably in some species of squid.
Sight starts developing after the 6th month in babies and development continues until the age of 10. Sight is one of the most important senses that connects us to the world. Light and color have a mesmerizing effect on us. On average, the human eye can perceive 150 different colors in visible light. This means a person with normal sight can differentiate between millions of different colors. Color is one of the most important characteristics that can help us assess, estimate and define an object. Each and every person has certain reactions stored in their perceptions and as such the perception of each color addresses the related emotion.
Blue, in all respects is the total opposite of red. While blue is transparent and wet in appearance red is opaque and dry. Psychologically the cold and comforting nature of blue is the polar opposite of the warmth and excitement of red. In contrast to red, blue reduces body temperature, blood pressure and pulse rate. Blue evokes feelings of contentment, spaciousness and comfort due to being the color of the sky and ocean as well. As the shade of blue approaches black with the addition of black it may become depressive and melancholic. Blue is a color that is widely recommended for use in children’s rooms. Especially in nurseries, the use of blue helps the baby’s easy and peaceful transition into sleep. It can also be comfortably used with active and vibrant children due to its calming effect. As is the case with all other colors, you can accessorize your room in red and yellow when you choose to paint your walls in blue.
Abbott Handerson Thayer’s 1909 book Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, completed by his son Gerald H. Thayer, argued correctly for the widespread use of crypts among animals, and in particular described and explained countershading for the first time. However, the Thayers spoilt their case by arguing that camouflage was the sole purpose of animal coloration, which led them to claim that even the brilliant pink plumage of the flamingo or the roseate spoonbill was cryptic—against the momentarily pink sky at dawn or dusk. As a result, the book was mocked by critics including Theodore Roosevelt as having ”pushed [the ”doctrine” of concealing coloration] to such a fantastic extreme and to include such wild absurdities as to call for the application of common sense thereto.
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