Halette Bourdon November 29, 2019 Fruit
Countershading was first described by the American artist Abbott Handerson Thayer, a pioneer in the theory of animal coloration. Thayer observed that whereas a painter takes a flat canvas and uses colored paint to create the illusion of solidity by painting in shadows, animals such as deer are often darkest on their backs, becoming lighter towards the belly, creating (as zoologist Hugh Cott observed) the illusion of flatness, and against a matching background, of invisibility. Thayer’s observation ”Animals are painted by Nature, darkest on those parts which tend to be most lighted by the sky’s light, and vice versa” is called Thayer’s Law.
Müllerian mimicry was first described by pioneering naturalist Fritz Muller. When a distasteful animal comes to resemble a more common distasteful animal, natural selection favors individuals that even very slightly better resemble the target. For example, many species of stinging wasp and bee are similarly colored black and yellow. Muller’s explanation of the mechanism for this was one of the first uses of mathematics in biology. He argued that a predator, such as a young bird, must attack at least one insect, say a wasp, to learn that the black and yellow colors mean a stinging insect. If bees were differently colored, the young bird would have to attack one of them also. But when bees and wasps resemble each other, the young bird need only attack one from the whole group to learn to avoid all of them. So, fewer bees are attacked if they mimic wasps; the same applies to wasps that mimic bees. The result is mutual resemblance for mutual protection.
Bio luminescence is the production of light, such as by the photosensor of marine animals, and the tails of glow-worms and fireflies. Bio luminescence, like other forms of metabolism, releases energy derived from the chemical energy of food. A pigment, luciferin is catalysed by the enzyme luciferase to react with oxygen, releasing light. Comb jellies such as Euphemisms are bio luminescent, creating blue and green light, especially when stressed; when disturbed, they secrete an ink which luminescence in the same colors. Since comb jellies are not very sensitive to light, their bio luminescence is unlikely to be used to signal to other members of the same species (e.g. to attract mates or repel rivals); more likely, the light helps to distract predators or parasites. Some species of squid have light-producing organs (photophores) scattered all over their undersides that create a sparkling glow. This provides counter-illumination camouflage, preventing the animal from appearing as a dark shape when seen from below. Some anglerfish of the deep sea, where it is too dark to hunt by sight, contain symbiotic bacteria in the ’bait’ on their ’fishing rods’. These emit light to attract prey.
Blue, in all respects is the total opposite of red. While blue is transparent and wet in appearance red is opaque and dry. Psychologically the cold and comforting nature of blue is the polar opposite of the warmth and excitement of red. In contrast to red, blue reduces body temperature, blood pressure and pulse rate. Blue evokes feelings of contentment, spaciousness and comfort due to being the color of the sky and ocean as well. As the shade of blue approaches black with the addition of black it may become depressive and melancholic. Blue is a color that is widely recommended for use in children’s rooms. Especially in nurseries, the use of blue helps the baby’s easy and peaceful transition into sleep. It can also be comfortably used with active and vibrant children due to its calming effect. As is the case with all other colors, you can accessorize your room in red and yellow when you choose to paint your walls in blue.
Chromatophores are special pigment-containing cells that may change their size, but more often retain their original size but allow the pigment within them to become redistributed, thus varying the color and pattern of the animal. Chromatophores may respond to hormonal and or neurobal control mechanisms, but direst responses to stimulation by visible light, UV-radiation, temperature, pH-changes, chemicals, etc. have also been documented. The voluntary control of chromatophores is known as metachrosis. For example, cuttlefish and chameleons can rapidly change their appearance, both for camouflage and for signalling, as Aristotle first noted over 2000 years ago
Orange is softer and simpler in comparison to red. It represents happiness, sociability, an extrovert nature as well as joy with the excitement of red and the energy of yellow. It is ideal in overcoming tiredness. It radiates warmth, increases appetite and helps you wake up early in the mornings. Its energy can be lower when saturation is low. It is ideal for use in the rooms of introverted children with problems in socializing. Orange physically represents self confidence, independence and to a certain extent competition. If there is a separate recreation room in your house and your child spends time there with his/her friends you can easily use shades of orange in this room.
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