Halette Bourdon November 29, 2019 Fruit
When we see leaf-eating insects green, and bark-feeders mottled-grey; the alpine ptarmigan white in winter, the red-grouse the colour of heather, and the black-grouse that of peaty earth, we must believe that these tints are of service to these birds and insects in preserving them from danger. Grouse, if not destroyed at some period of their lives, would increase in countless numbers; they are known to suffer largely from birds of prey; and hawks are guided by eyesight to their prey, so much so, that on parts of the Continent persons are warned not to keep white pigeons, as being the most liable to destruction. Hence I can see no reason to doubt that natural selection might be most effective in giving the proper colour to each kind of grouse, and in keeping that colour, when once acquired, true and constant.
Aggregate fruits form from single flowers that have multiple carpels which are not joined together, i.e. each pistil contains one carpel. Each pistil forms a fruitlet, and collectively the fruitlets are called an etaerio. Four types of aggregate fruits include etaerios of achenes, follicles, drupelets, and berries. Ranunculaceae species, including Clematis and Ranunculus have an etaerio of achenes, Calotropis has an etaerio of follicles, and Rubus species like raspberry, have an etaerio of drupelets. Annona have an etaerio of berries.
Pink, which is a mixture of red and white, physically affects us in a positive way. It is relaxing and warm. It is the only lighter shade of red with it’s own name. Other lighter colors are just light green or light blue. Pink is also psychologically a strong color. It represents the continuity of living beings as well as femininity. It has a deeply soothing effect. Too much pink could be tiring and oppressive. It is not suitable to use too much pink in the rooms of shy and introverted children as this is not an energetic color. It can lead to further withdrawal of this type of children. Pink with lesser undertones of red can be easily used in the rooms of active and energetic children. It evokes feelings of warmth and peace.
Red attracts all the attention and distorts the effect of other colors. The lens of the eye must adjust to be able to focus on red. The natural focal point is behind the retina. The dynamism of red is reduced as it turns into pink with the addition of white and gains softer and calmer undertones. For this reason, the use of red on the walls of children’s rooms must be avoided. Due to its strong and warm effect red could be used as an accent in children’s rooms fashioned in beige, blue and brown. Using intense red in the room of your child who uses it to study, play with his/her friends and sleep in, could have a negative effect on your child. Children could feel themselves tense and aggressive in rooms painted in intense red.
Their interest was in examining coloring therapy which “combines elements of art therapy and meditation” (pp. 81). In the study, 84 undergraduate students received “a brief anxiety-induction,” and were randomly assigned to color either a mandala, plaid form, or blank piece of paper (pp. 81). Curry and Kasser reported, “that anxiety levels declined approximately the same for the mandala- and plaid-coloring groups and that both of these groups experienced more reduction in anxiety than did the unstructured-coloring group”
Countershading was first described by the American artist Abbott Handerson Thayer, a pioneer in the theory of animal coloration. Thayer observed that whereas a painter takes a flat canvas and uses colored paint to create the illusion of solidity by painting in shadows, animals such as deer are often darkest on their backs, becoming lighter towards the belly, creating (as zoologist Hugh Cott observed) the illusion of flatness, and against a matching background, of invisibility. Thayer’s observation ”Animals are painted by Nature, darkest on those parts which tend to be most lighted by the sky’s light, and vice versa” is called Thayer’s Law.
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